Alternatives to the War on Drugs: Harm Reduction The damaging consequences and mounting costs of the drug war have led to increasing interest in alternative approaches to the regulation of psychoactive substances, among which harm reduction approaches are perhaps the most prominent.
A harm reduction approach to drug policy focuses on laws, practices, and programs that reduce the damage caused by illicit drugs and antidrug measures. Whereas prohibitionist drug war policies typically identify prevalence of illicit drug use as a chief outcome of interest, harm reduction focuses on reducing damages associated with the misuse of psychoactive drugs.
Since the government of Portugal has adopted a novel approach to drug regulations that has emphasized harm reduction. In response to high levels of drug use and drug related-problems, the Portuguese government implemented decriminalization for use, acquisition, and possession of drugs and has redirected resources to provide support for individuals who suffer from problematic substance use.
Fears that decriminalization would lead to a wider acceptability of illicit substances and increased rates of substance use were not realized; despite a slight rise in illicit drug use among adults, rates of use have dropped among problematic drug users and adolescents. In addition, drug treatment rates have risen, and the burden of drug offenders on the criminal justice system has lessened. Moreover, there have been decreases in opiate-related deaths and the spread of infectious disease related to injection drug use.
In general, the Portuguese experiment has been hailed as evidence for the important role of harm reduction in addressing substance use. Future Directions and Drug Policy Reform The first decades of the 21st century have marked a shift away from what many perceive to be the unproductive excesses of the War on Drugs.
The Report of the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy declared the global War on Drugs a failure, noting that prohibitionist policies have failed to stem the consumption of illicit drugs in Latin America.
The commission called for a shift in policy toward maximizing public health, repressing organized crime, and reducing illicit drug use through education and prevention. In a similar vein, the Global Commission on Drug Policy Report calls for the end of the criminalization and marginalization of drug users who pose no risk to others, and suggests that governments consider decriminalization as a viable policy option. In , the UN General Assembly responded to these developments by accepting a proposal to hold an emergency drug policy summit to debate alternative approaches to the War on Drugs.
The proposal, introduced by Mexico, Colombia, and Guatemala and backed by 95 nations, has the potential to garner international support for substantial drug law reform and legalization.
However, the United States has also witnessed recent changes to the zero-tolerance strategies of the past. The Barack Obama administration has professed to endorse alternatives to the unsuccessful strategies of the prior half century and has made modest shifts in resources from law enforcement to prevention and treatment. As of this writing, the reconciliation of U. In sum, the War on Drugs has been waged for more than half a century with little progress toward reduction of drug use or attenuation of supply.
This apparent failure has been coupled with strong negative consequences for personal liberty, public health, and economic and political stability. And with legalization, we may think we came with a solution, but it is merely the opposite. With legalization one would think it would put an end to our increased taxes, but it would continue to be the same.
We would need to pay up more money for the wars being fought for these drugs. If drugs such as cocaine or opiate based drugs were legal and to be demanded, we would need to collect from sources such as Asia and the Middle East. We would be fueling another battle amongst those countries, something that is inevitable. Especially when it involves such addictive substances, with high anticipation and demand.
The War on Drugs going on in Mexico today is a prime example. We now begin to think that our increased taxes will grow, while sending out troops to fight for the drugs that we need. Overall, The War on Drugs seems like an never ending war, but in reality all it takes is small but powerful change in order to approach it. If we were to help ourselves before helping others, we would be of more service and help. And these principles could be applied anywhere else that has the desire to put an end into a drug fueled environment.
This nonviolent approach goes along way and overtime will save more lives and potential to the people of tomorrow. We can start by prevention, and work from there.
Prevention is the deterrent we need to face the war in a positive direction. With the intervention of U. President Barack Obama and the freezing…… [Read More]. Workplace Drug Testing and Invasion. Rights of privacy give way to rights of public utility: People want, not only profits, efficiency, and productivity, but also security. In order to feel safer, we willingly surrender some of our independence, our privacy. We support random drug testing in the war against drugs; we welcome the idea of state trooper roadblocks in order to crack down on drunk drivers.
Each guarantees some fundamental right…… [Read More]. Punitive Drug Prohibition in the United States. Punitive Drug Prohibition In contrast to the United States, many countries around the world are now using harm reduction instead of drug prohibition and are facing the facts that drug prohibition will not make drug use go away. This paper will discuss drug prohibition in the United States and in the rest of the world where it is permissive and where cannabis can be found in many cafes.
It will compare drug polices and conclude which policy would best help the drug situation in the United States.
It will also assess the economic affects of punitive drug prohibition. This research is socially significant because drug use comes at a huge expense not only to the drug user, but also society as a whole. While most countries agree that drug use reduction should be a goal, there's a disagreement over the best way to accomplish this objective, punitive drug prohibition or…… [Read More]. Legalization of Drugs of Abuse.
It is estimated that by there will be 35 million teens in America Levinson. This is a significant demographic to be concerned about.
There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them Messerli. Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed.
Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. Government Doesn't Legalize Drugs The. Bakalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http: Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.
New Approaches to Local Polic. How to Legalize Drugs. July , pages. Texas Laws Regarding Illegal Drugs. Lance Hignite Texas Laws Regarding Illegal Drugs The history of the United States policy towards drugs in general is a two-dimensional frame, the first being supply reduction, the reduction and control of the supply of drugs through legislation, law enforcement, interdiction, sentencing, and incarceration, and the second being demand reduction, the reduction of the demand for drugs.
The war on drugs has largely been waged in the south-western border region of the United States. Five federal border districts including California South, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas West, and Texas South alone are responsible for roughly one quarter of federal narcotics prosecutions annually. Legalization of Drugs Ever Since. He argues that 15 million Americans used drugs over and over again last year, but very few harms were actually produced. To punish all 15 million users for the few harms is unfair, but again he does say that.
He also argues that racial inequalities make the system unfair. Minorities are no more likely to use drugs, but they are far more likely to be arrested, tried, and convicted, and minority communities are devastated because of this selective enforcement.
He finally takes a stand and admits Americans should be outraged by this. The author effectively refutes arguments that drug use would soar if it were decriminalized. The price of drugs would not go down, he claims, even if it became legal to sell them. Taxes would take care of that. Lawsuits would be allowed against producers for harmful effects. To remain in business, drug producers would have to pay the…… [Read More].
This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business.
Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed.
Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.
National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade Critchley, Till , there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U. The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…… [Read More]. Latin America Drug Trafficking to the United.
Many people believe that were drugs that arrive from Latin America be legalized that the situation would be much easier to cope with allowing taxation on drug products. This work reviews why making drug trafficking by Latin American cartels to the United States is not a viable option. Indeed, were the United States to do so, the very principles and values of Democracy would be violated as these drug cartels are directly opposed to democratic principles and for these drug cartels to profit democracy would have to suffer greatly.
Health Science in Regards to Drugs and Alcohol. Health Science in Regards to Drugs and Alcohol Legalization of drugs When Colorado and Washington legalized the use of marijuana for recreational purposes, issues related to legalization of all drugs became subject of public debate. Those who voted for legalization of Marijuana in these two states argued that legalization of these drugs would generate revenue, deter black market activities, and check against lose of tax resources used by law enforcement agencies Will, These younger and liberal voters averred that drug enforcement unfairly targeted minority groups and that the current laws led to greater crimes because of the demand for illegal drugs.
Those of opposing view opined that criminalization of recreational drugs could help lower rate of use and abuse hence decrease in addictions and problems associated with it. Opponents of legalization of drugs were older and more conservative. The current policy detailing the war on drugs has failed to…… [Read More]. College is a time of change, and change can produce stress; however, as it is to be noted that a certain amount of substance abuse appears to be a part of the regular college experience.
All forms of SUD are relatively prevalent in young adulthood, suggesting that perhaps substance involvement is more related to developmental and social factors associated with this stage of life as opposed to stable individual differences.
David Degrazia Degrazia, ,…… [Read More]. According to the U. Department of Justice there are now 1. For the following types of offenses: Legalization of Drugs in the. Perhaps it is ironic that one of Bennett's weaker arguments relates to the Prohibition during the s. The author claims that, contrary to many existing arguments and evidence, the Prohibition was not necessarily the instigator of soaring crime rates.
Furthermore, he also claims that alcohol usage diminished drastically as a result of its illegalization.
Although this may well be, Bennett provides no statistical or research evidence as proof of these claims. Indeed, he addresses the topic only briefly, as a springboard for his counter-arguments. It is almost as if the issue was addressed only for the benefit of those who would use the events surrounding the Prohibition as an argument in favor of legalizing drugs.
I feel that the author could have made his argument much stronger by providing research evidence for his claims. Nevertheless, the general logic of his arguments against legalizing drugs is compelling. Considering the effect, as…… [Read More]. Reefer Madness Sex Drugs and. The Reagan Administration was obsessed with prosecuting pornographers, and eventually convicted one of the industry's earliest producers, a man named Reuben Sturman, on charges of tax evasion.
Ironically, the Administration claimed to worship Adam Smith and free enterprise -- except, of course, when it conflicted with its ideals of Christian morality. Republican administrations have felt less uncomfortable with the prospect of illegal labor, as Schlosser's chronicles of the conditions of strawberry pickers illustrate.
Again, hypocrisy is evident -- the same right-wing advertisers who created the Willie Horton ad campaign that defeated Michael Dukakis have fought unionization of the migrant workers, and local authorities have refused to set up low-income housing Schlosser , p. The market rewards only efficiency, Schlosser muses: Gore Vidal -- Drugs in.
Wouldn't the government need the same amount of money, or perhaps even more, to regulate the new drug system. I can' only imagine the bureaucracy necessary to manage the legal trade of things like heroin, crack cocaine and meth.
The other prong of Vidal's argument is that "forbidding people the things the like or think they might enjoy only makes them want those things all the more. As evidentiary support, he points to prohibition, but his arguments about prohibition don't directly support his thesis.
He argues, correctly, that crime increased because of the prohibition of alcohol, and that the law caused a general contempt for the government, but he does not prove that people wanted to drink more because alcohol was prohibited to them. The analogy between alcohol and drugs also does not hold up to…… [Read More]. Five Major Street Drugs. The author of this report will answer all of those questions in detail and provide the proper sourcing and citations for the same.
While some modest successes are made when it comes to the "war on drugs," the United States law enforcement collective is losing the battle and there is a difference of strategy when it comes to a comparison between the United Nations and the United States. The first question is fairly specific and brief. For each of the five major illicit drugs that are available and that are used in the United States, there will be a summary of what each one…… [Read More].
Racial Profiling the War on. Police officers are more likely to stop African-Americans for traffic stops and once stopped, officers are more likely to search the vehicles of African-Americans. According to the traffic stop data in San Diego, African-American drivers had a sixty percent greater chance and Hispanic drivers had a thirty-seven percent greater chance of being stopped compare to white drivers, and once stopped, African-American drivers were more likely to have their vehicles searched Coker pp.
Many believe that this increased opportunity to discover criminal offending is a significant reason for the disproportionate rate of arrest and incarceration of African-Americans Coker pp. Drug enforcement concentrated in poor inner city areas populated predominately by African-Americans and other people of color results in deepened social disorganization in…… [Read More]. Not only were minorities more likely to be stopped than whites, but more often than not are pressured to allow searches of their vehicles, and are more likely to allow such searches Anderson Pp.
In March , the New York Times reported that a investigation by New Jersey police of their own practices found that "turnpike drivers who agreed to have their cars searched by the state police were overwhelmingly black and Hispanic" Anderson Pp. Although African-Americans and Hispanics have been the targeted victims of racial profiling, since the September 11th attacks, Arab-Americans and visitors from Middle Eastern countries also find themselves the target of racial profiling due to their ethnicity and the global profile of terrorists Barnes Pp.
Many believe that racial profiling is…… [Read More]. Such addiction may have been known by other descriptions and may not have been known to be the result of something exactly identified as a drug but such use was still likely an addiction.
The use of drugs has been recorded by historians for thousands of years Crafts, Wine was used by the early Egyptians and narcotics and marijuana have been noted to be used as far back as B.
But it was not until the 19th century that the active ingredients in drugs were extracted. For many years many of the drugs that are now heavily regulated and controlled were freely available and prescribed by physicians. There easy availability resulted in many becoming addicted to their use and by the earlys there were an…… [Read More].
Criminalization of Drugs Criminalization. Four decades since the launch of the war on drugs, violent crime caused by the drug trade continues to be a serious social concern. Four administrations have personally waged a war on drugs, characterized mainly through the criminalization of drugs and other harmful substances; yet these efforts have done little to decrease the availability and use of drugs in America. The country still tops the world in illegal drug use. A recent report by CNN, for instance, showed that approximately , persons were in prison for drug-related crimes in , compared to only 40, in Branson, Columbian Drug Trade If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market.
This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.
However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.
We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade. It is certainly…… [Read More]. Legalization of Drugs Laws Against.
Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs.
The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea. Bibliography 10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana.
Retrieved August 8, from Web site:
Huemer: “America’s Unjust Drug War” In the essay “America’s Unjust Drug War” by Michael Huemer, Huemer discusses the facts and opinions around the subject on whether or not the recreational use of drugs should be banned by law. Huemer believes that the American government should not prohibit the use of drugs.
The War on Drugs is a term applied to a campaign on the prohibition of drugs of drug use, with the effort to reduced illegal drug trades. The current War on Drugs has affected our society physically and emotionally, and should end .
Related Documents: War on Drugs Essay Essay about war on drugs Drugs 1 Running Head: Drugs Drugs: More Than Just Black and White Brooklyn High School Drugs 2 The war on drugs is the fight to keep illegal drugs off of the streets. Essay War on Drugs Research. Drug use and abuse is an expensive problem in the United States, both financially and socially. The War on Drugs has been an ongoing effort to combat drug abuse, drug use and crime associated with the drug trade. It's a war without a clear enemy.
War on Drugs is an expression applied commonly to the campaign against illegal drugs by the U.S. government. President Richard Nixon of U.S introduced the term in War on Drugs comprises of several drug policies, military aid and assistance, and assistance from participating countries. War on Drugs Essay The War on Drugs refers to an international, United States-led campaign to prohibit specific psychoactive substances. Although the terminology and scope of the current War on Drugs are relatively new, prohibition of psychoactive substances can be traced to antiquity.