Nowadays, it is obvious that even though the process of globalization was stimulated by the growing economic cooperation between countries, at the present moment economic integration of countries contributes consistently to the political and cultural integration. As a result, countries start to form international alliances and unions, such as the EU, which overcome national borders. Moreover, the number of international organizations, such as WTO, that facilitates economic, political and cultural relations between countries is constantly growing.
On the other hand, the process of globalization produces a profound impact not only on the development of countries but it also affects the development of companies. One of the major characteristic of the process of globalization on the corporate level is the emergence of multinational corporations that play the leading role in practically all industries and nowadays they are viewed as leading powers in the world economy.
At any rate, it proves beyond a doubt that it is multinational corporations that, to a significant extent, define the economic development of many regions, the implementation of technological innovations, scientific researches and progress at large.
Such a shift on the corporate level naturally affects the role of nation states, which also changes consistently. In fact, nowadays, it is possible to estimate that in the result of economic development, technological and scientific changes, new political trends, the world is entering a new stage of globalization, which effects cannot be predicted absolutely precisely, but still it is possible to forecast what the world should expect in the future under the impact of the new stage of globalization.
On analyzing the future perspectives of the process of globalization and the world development, it is necessary to underline that the economic development will be determined by four major dimensions: Basically, even nowadays it is possible to observe the shift to the growing role of these four dimensions that produce a significant impact on business decisions, while in the future their role may become determinant.
In this respect, it should be pointed out that the development of communications is, to a significant extent, defined by the development of new technologies which provide larger opportunities for the development of communications. One of the major characteristics of the contemporary communications is the facilitation of the process of communication and elimination of geographical boundaries. What is meant here is the fact that the contemporary communications provide ample opportunities to maintain contacts between people in different parts of the world.
In actuality, companies can use contemporary communications to develop links with their business partners or affiliates. In the future, the role of communication will grow even more because the process of globalization has practically eliminated boundaries between countries.
Therefore, companies got ample opportunities for the development of their business in different parts of the world but, in order to provide the effective work of its affiliates or maintain the permanent contacts with business partners. In practice, this means that communications are strategically important and may play the key role in the international market expansion of a company, for instance, because, being deprived of effective communications, a company will more likely be doomed to failure.
Obviously, communications can provide a more effective system of control over the production process that is important for the maintenance of the high quality of products and services. For instance, companies based in well-developed countries can develop their business in developing countries where the qualification of the labor force is consistently lower.
Consequently, such companies need to control the production process and communications are extremely helpful in this regard. Moreover, it is obvious that knowledge and information are major factors that determine the commercial success of any company, especially companies focusing on the implementation of innovation.
At this point, it is necessary to underline that communications contribute to the more effective sharing of knowledge and information between different units of a company. In actuality, it is possible to develop projects, involving specialists that live and work in different parts of the world and, due to the contemporary communications, they can interact effectively in spite of their geographical location.
Also, logistics is one of the key elements of the stable and effective functioning of contemporary companies and communications contributes consistently to the improvement of logistics, while in the future it will play even more important role. In this respect, it should be said that the development of e-commerce, for instance, makes the shipping and logistics practically impossible without the use of contemporary communications and in the future this trend will grow stronger.
The capital is traditional an important, constituent element of the contemporary business and, according to K. Ohmae, capital will be of a paramount importance in the process of business decision making in the future In fact, the free movement of capital that could observed nowadays indicates to the perspective of the large progress of direct foreign investments, which increases the cooperation between countries and facilitate consistently the penetration of companies into foreign markets.
Even though the effects of the free movement of capital in the form of investments may be quite controversial for local economies, the development of the future economy is hardly possible without it.
On the one hand, significant investments of multinational corporations can undermine the position of local companies, but, on the other hand, they stimulate the development of the local economy through the partnership with the local suppliers, partners, etc. The major trend that could be observed in the movement of capital even nowadays is the growing cooperation between developed countries. Investments of companies based in the US, Europe and Japan constitute the dominant part of the global investments.
In such a way, the capital tends to the internationalization and makes economic links between companies located in different countries stronger. Similarly, the role of multinational corporations grows stronger too because in the contemporary world they play extremely important role and the major part of all foreign investments are made by multinational corporations.
The other important reason of resistance and struggle is the gender inequality and difference. At the level of policy, the influence of globalization on women and gender relations is still ignored on the national and international levels.
Due to gender inequalities and discrimination in many countries worldwide, globalization processes may render their negative influence on women in greater degree than on men.
Nevertheless, many advocates of women admit that globalization influences various groups of women differently. It even creates new treatment standards for women, and assists some groups of women to mobilize.
Thus, the role of globalization for many women is still in debate and it is evidently different. Consequently, globalization is very complex concept and it stimulates to occurrence of different theories, economical, political and cultural studies.
There are a lot of reasons due to which globalization has been perceived as mainly an economic phenomenon that additionally has had an evident impact on political, social, and cultural life. Economic globalization means, that it is a long-run upward tendency. Thus, it will be useful to measure globalization. There is a lot of various indicators of economic globalization and they may or may not illustrate familiar patterns in regards to change over time.
Trade globalization can be distinguished as the certain share of the production all over the world. Investment globalization would be the share of all world capital invested that belongs to non-nationals capital in the world that belongs to non-nationals i.
Also it is possible to investigate the degree of economic integration of countries by defining the extent to which national economic growth rates correspond to each other in the world countries. From the economic point of view, globalization is connected with the transnationalization and deterritorialization of industry and capital, which has permitted companies to cross national borders and to travel over the world to succeed from cheaper labor and to open, develop and promote new markets for different services and goods.
In addition, economic globalization has been connected with the occurrence of international free trade agreements as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades GATT , and the foundation of an around-the-clock global financial market Szeman , p. Contemporary patterns of economic globalization have been much connected with a new development of the relationship between markets and states. Together with financial integration, the operations of multinational corporations also played the important role.
They integrated national and local economies into global and regional production networks. Due to such conditions, national economies are no longer autonomous systems of wealth creation since national boundaries no longer function as essential barriers to the organization of economic activity and its conduct Held and McGrew.
As it was above-mentioned, the multinational corporation further — MNCs was significant to the establishment of a new global capitalist order. Modern transnational production essentially exceeds the level of global exports and has become the main means for exporting services and goods.
According to some estimates, multinational corporations now make for at least 20 per cent of world production and 70 per cent of world trade Held and McGrew.
Economic globalization has also been characterized by an evident internationalization of political power connected with a relevant globalization of political activity. Thus, it is worth to deal with the political meaning of globalization.
A special attention has been paid to the threats caused by globalization in regards of the sovereignty and power of nation-states and accordingly, on the occurrence of new sites of transnational politics placed in global cities, international organizations such as NGOs and the United Nations and transnational corporations Szeman , pp. At that time global cities were the spaces where labor, capital, infrastructure, and information are concentrated Irvine It means that global cities are the nodes of cyberspace, the space of flows including the simultaneous concentration and decentralization of people, economic activity, communications, technical infrastructure, and information Irvine From the point of the diffusion of cultural productions on the Net, cultural globalization follows the logic of urban concentration in the global information economy.
In turn, cyberpace is a segmented and segregated space that is similar to global cities where IT infrastructure, firms, capital, labor, and services are concentrated, as it was already above mentioned. Research of the politics of globalization consists of estimation of the growing militarization of global relations, the occurrence of new nationalisms and ethnic confrontations, and the intensive migrations of peoples across regions or even across the world.
This process concerns essential problems on notions of cultural belonging and citizenship in almost all countries in the West Szeman The concept of globalization has also been researched in regards of the development of new communication technologies that are significant in destroying our world spatially. With the help of these global communication technologies, it has become possible to perceive our globe as a single space shared by all human beings.
It does not only mean that with the help of computer and communication technologies we can instantaneously transmit and transfer information each other all over the world. Fuels used in transportation of these goods have increased the levels of pollution to the environment. Transportation across the world has also resulted in other environmental predicaments such as the intrusion of landscape and noise pollution.
Depletion of non-renewable energy sources such as gasoline has also brought environmental concerns. Aircraft transport, which is an important part of global transportation, usually emits gases, which results in depletion of the protective ozone layer. This has caused the greenhouse effect, which has brought about negative climatic changes. Plastic, a major pollutant, is an important part of manufacturing. Plastic is commonly used for preserving and packaging goods for export and since it is a non-biodegradable, it forms a large part of environment toxic pollutants Labadi Globalization has led to industrialization.
Industrial chemicals and wastes usually find their way into the water bodies and the soil. These harmful industrial products have caused the deaths of underwater organisms. In the year , a container belonging to British Petroleum Company leaked out petroleum product in the Atlantic Ocean. According to Labadi 32 , this led to the death of millions of underwater organisms in a stretch of seven miles.
In the soil, chemicals and industrial effluents have led to outgrowth of noxious plants and weeds Labadi These plants and weeds usually cause damage to animals and plants by interfering with their genetic composition. In the end, this will cause plants and animals to have harmful side effects upon consumption. Demand for increased production for a global market has increased demand for factors of production. The demand for land, especially, has been on the rise. This has caused natural environmental encroachment.
Forests have been cleared to pave way for agricultural activities and construction of firms and industries. For instance, land in India has been reclaimed from the sea in order to plant rice for the global market Ehlers 44 ….
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Mar 17, · Research Paper on Globalization The process of globalization has defined the development of the world economy during the last couple of decades. Basically, this process affects the world at the present moment as well and, what is more, the impact of globalization . Research papers on international economics study the integration of world economies. In our increasingly globalized world, international economics affects productivity, imports and exports, technology, and growth rates. Some of the trends in international economics are: How to Write a Research Paper on Globalization.