Robinson The author also asserts that 'The Hebrew prophets have so greatly influenced religion…… [Read More]. Marriage and Long-Standing Relationships Marriage. The report believed that it would be wise to examine the events, which have been happening. Canada recently stood at the forefront of Western nations in instituting radical changes in family law.
The dominant stand among legal elites, including the two groups, which wrote the two reports, was that the family law should not aim at protecting the rights of children to grow up with their own, married parents Cere Instead, it should protect and promote a concept called "family diversity.
The authors of the reports argued that society would be better off with all kinds of families co-existing and viewed as…… [Read More].
Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they men are not. Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.
Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…… [Read More]. Affect in the Modern World. Specifically, these include issues of sexuality, gender, homosexuality, and the relationship between parents and children. All these issues have changed as the world developed sociologically and technologically. Current technological and informational developments for example have a profound effect on the morals and norms relating to the above issues.
In terms of sexuality, Erich Fromm suggests that erotic love is frequently deceptive, as it is mistaken for the phenomenon of love itself, rather than an extension of the emotion.
When the union is however achieved, no barriers are left to conquer and the tendency is to crave a new union with another stranger. This urge is however frequently curbed by the ethics of sexuality imposed by society as described by Bertrand Russell.
Although the structure of society favors polygamy, monogamy is often imposed by the subconscious that…… [Read More]. Marriage Robert P George and.
George's argument preserves the fundamental truths that democracy in its most theocratic incarnation promotes, with regards to basing moral law on arbitrary grounds. My position is precisely the same as George's: Same sex marriage affirms the value of sex for pleasure only, and is therefore an affront to moral law. Moral law, moreover, proclaims marriage as a union between one man and one woman with the intention of having children.
Same-sex marriage is an affront to the concept of patriarchal law and the social contract between a man and a woman. It is inconceivable to allow the definition of marriage to expand beyond the natural law definition.
If a democracy is founded on moral principles, then same sex marriage has no place in the society. Democracy promotes human rights.
The pursuit of happiness is pursuant on moral principles, which, although rooted tacitly…… [Read More]. Should Homosexuals Be Able to Marry. Same-sex marriage has been made legal in nine states as of November, However, "Between and , twenty-seven states amended their constitutions to prohibit same sex marriage" Salka, et al.
Clearly this is a contentious issue in America. The polling that has taken place over the past year in America clearly shows that the majority of citizens support same-sex marriage. Politics Culture and Human Nature. Mill take issue with the Puritans? Famed government theoretician John Stuart Mill took great exception with the Puritans who traveled to the New orld in order to start a community based upon similar fanatical religious beliefs. The reason that he took such issue with the Puritans is that they used religion as a basis of government but worse than this they used that religious intolerance in order to oppress and marginalize others.
The Puritans made their laws based upon the assertion that their restriction encouraged moral behavior, but in doing so they took away each person's right to make individual choices. Mill wrote, "ith respect to what is said of the necessity of protecting society from the bad example set to others by the vicious or the self-indulgent; it is true that bad example may have a pernicious effect, especially the example of doing wrong to others with impunity…… [Read More].
On both issues, beyond any economic or social arguments, the discussion should always revert back to the Scriptures and to what the Scriptures say about these elements. For example, the Congress agreed that the Scriptures allow for marriage after ordination or, in fact, that there is nothing in the Scriptures that prohibits that, meaning, by extrapolation and law principle, that whatever is not prohibited, is considered to be in line with the canonical law.
In his initial analysis, Viscuso also makes an important note on why that is: Legislating Morality Something Learned The desire to legislate morality is well established in American history. Our forefather's passed legislation to prohibit acts that they felt might induce people to behave in a socially unacceptable manner. The impetus to legislate morality comes from the tension created between an individual's personal liberty and the concern that this liberty may create a licentious quality that would be terrible.
Some laws are necessary for protecting the physical well-being of individuals and their property and the ordinary function of society, however, legislating morality often has unintended consequences. For example the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in outlawed the possession and sale of alcohol. Nevertheless, the demand for liquor continued resulting in the criminalization of producers, suppliers and consumers.
Police, courts and prisons were overwhelmed with new cases, organized crime increased in power, and corruption among law enforcement officials was extended.
The amendment was repealed…… [Read More]. Global Cultural Analysis Nigeria. Global Business Cultural Analysis Nigeria Nigerian History Synopsis of Nigerian government Nigerian monarchy to presidential system The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government Nigerian major commodities Oil Food The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria Cultural dimensions Individualism Power distance Masculinity Uncertainty Model of culture Universalism or Particularize How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business? The role of women in the workplace Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie for men! Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria Conclusion eferences Abstract Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,…… [Read More].
Proof of the Objectivity of Morals Proof of the Objectivity of Morals" Barmbrough is trying to prove that common sense defeats philosophical explanations in many cases. He says that information that can be proven by the five senses or simply because it is true, is more important than the language used to make the point. This paper argues that a commonsense view that could be understood by all is more important than "double talk" that is philosophical but cannot be understood by everyone.
Moore himself speaks largely in terms of knowledge and belief and truth and falsehood rather than of the language in which we make our common sense claims" Bambrough In his argument he says that words should not be subjective.
Communication should be tangible and concrete. He contrasts factual information with valuable information. He argues that people do have moral information that goes beyond the factual. This is information that could and should…… [Read More]. Kung San Trial Marriages and U.
Kung San are a hunter-gatherer people that inhabit the Kalahari desert in Africa. They are the ushmen who have managed to live a contented, self-governed life while the rest of the world has sprung up around them in a mass of technology and dysfunction. They live a community life where the economy is based on sharing and "among the first words a child learns are na "give it to me" and ihn "take this" " Shostak Nevertheless there are many similarities shared between Americans and the!
Kung San, some of which are as simple as equal love for their children, to the interesting arrangements of a 'trial marriage'. Kung trial marriage could be acquainted with people living together before getting married, or cohabiting as part of a condition before marriage, depending on religious…… [Read More].
Mormonism was founded by Joseph Smith in the early 19th century in New York. During the Second Great Awakening a Protestant movement in America in the early s , Smith generated and drew support for his vision of America's privileged place in the history of Christianity.
Smith's vision was rooted in the reformist movement of the Great Awakening and the doctrines that Smith taught were of the omantic spirit that fueled the Awakening, attracting many people of the time who looked forward to the return of Christ to the world as foretold in the New Testament Smith, The new message that Smith gave to his followers was that "on the morning of the 22nd of September the Angel of the Lord delivered" to him "a series of records of the aboriginal inhabitants of North America" -- records…… [Read More].
Marriage, Divorce and Family Functions Define the Institute of Marriage and identify the important cultural functions Marriage encompasses a broad definition of the interpersonal unions established between partners granting them familial bond based on legal, social, and religious grounds.
Further, marriage grants partners mutual conjugal rights. The family as a social unit functions to ensure the cooperation of its members based on aspects of child rearing and managing reproduction.
Cultures endeavor to dictate the marriage patterns among other aspects. Cultures define the types of marriages such as monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry. On the economical aspect, cultures dictate dowry, bride wealth, and service. Limitations Different societies have set different limitations on marriage.
For example, some societies practice polygamy, especially African cultures whereas Westerners shun it and prefer monogamy. Love and marriage…… [Read More]. Incompatibility between Islam and Human Rights. Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights.
Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors.
Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in , and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans.
The wide world of polygamy: We hate it, others love it. Psychology Today, 19 Feb Reason, 3 April The Dangers of Legalizing Polygamy. Ricochet, 25 June International journal of social psychiatry. Learning achievements, social adjustment and family conflicts among Bedouin-Arab children from polygamous and monogamous families. Journal of Social Psychology, , Bibliography Armstrong, Herbert W.
Oxford University Press, In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. References Altman, Irwin and Ginat, Joseph. Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society. Cambridge University Press, Polygamy in the monogamous world multicultural challenges for Western law and policy.
Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Retrieved November 30, , from https: An Ethical Case Study. Much has changed since the late s, and many arguments for keeping the ban aren't very compelling" Christianity Today. Retrieved March 29, , from: The Joys of Motherhood.
Islamic Law and Gender Equality: Could There be a Common Ground?: Human Rights Quarterly 27 2: Works Cited As retrieved at http: On April 17, As retrieved fromPractical Aspects of Polygamy The benefits polygamy has for women and the controls it places on men.
References Financial Analysis, , Retrieved from: Why is Polygamy Illegal? Council for Secular Humanism. The Bill Against Polygamy. One nation under Gods: A history of the Mormon church.
The four major periods of Mormon polygamy. The Signature Books Library. Accessed on March 3, References Aarts, Paul and Nonneman, Gerd. Saudi Arabia in the Balance: Political Economy, Society, Foreign Affairs. New York University Press: Works Cited Flowers, Ronald Bruce. Westminster John Knox, A History of Mormon Culture. University of North Carolina Press. Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith.
The Gold Rush altered the course of westward expansion, driving increasing numbers of non-Mormons to western lands and especially to California. The Gold Rush was therefore instrumental in preventing Young from entertaining the idea of moving the Mormon camp to California.
Mormon Samuel Brannan struck gold and was later excommunicated because he refused to tithe on his huge fortune A large number of fortune-seeking trailblazers had made the path to the Great Salt Lake basin easier, which solidified the decision to settle in what is now Salt Lake City Therefore, the Gold Rush had a huge impact on the geography of Mormon settlement.
By the s, Salt Lake City's Mormon businesses were prospering due to trade with gold seekers. Young encouraged economic self-sufficiency and diversification from what could have easily been an agriculture-dependent economy. Young and the Mormons had brought "to the Great Basin 75 to black slaves," a fact that Young "tried to conceal from federal officials" due to the brewing controversy over slavery in the new territories In spite of this, Young was ambivalent about the Civil War because it represented for him the spiritual end times.
When it became apparent that the North was headed for victory, Young took an opportunistic stance of supporting the Union but for strategic reasons only. Young remained staunchly pro-slavery. In also, Young encouraged the development of an "Iron Mission" that would take advantage of the wealth of raw materials like iron in the region By the end of the s, Young was involved in three "broad categories" of business: Although the Transcontinental Railroad did not pass directly through Salt Lake City, it benefitted the Mormon economy.
At the same time, Young feared the large numbers of non-Mormons it would bring to the territory Young agreed with the prevailing patriarchal view that men have dominion over women; that women were inherently inferior to men; and were also less intelligent Moreover, women represented sin, temptation, and spiritual corruption.
The United Order was "a system of economic cooperation that called upon selected Mormon communities to pool their equipment, their property, and their energy and work together," It was therefore a system of socialist cooperatives. Variations depended on different levels of economic commitment to the cooperative. Altman, Irwin; Ginat, Joseph. Interestingly, the chapter points out that polygamy has historically been much more prevalent than monogamy, which was historically practiced by less than one quarter of the world's population.
Although not legally married, they openly practice this. Other men engage in long-term extra-marital affairs, some of which are so culturally acceptable that mistresses are introduced to wives, and husbands divide their time among their different sets of families.
One interesting point the chapter makes is that polygamy in modern societies are on the decline simply for economic reasons, where few can afford more than one wife and family, especially if the wives are not wage earners.
The rest of the chapter considers various forms of polygamous marriages in South Africa, all of which are apparently consensual among the husband and wives, although some jealousy issues arise from time to time. The chapter indicates that this type of marriage is likely to gradually vanish as South Africa's economy modernizes. Bibliography Barber, Ray E. Marriage and the Family. Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and Humans.
The Good Society, 19 Bibliography Hassan, Riffat, Ph. Are Human Rights Compatible with Islam? Existence of polygamy today, its history in the Mormon Church and the church's views on the practice.
Polygamy trial to begin in Utah. Works Cited Abu-Hamdiyyah, Mohammad. A Very Short Introduction. The Mind of the Quran: Works Cited Al Faruqi, Lamya. Women, Muslim Society and Islam. Women's Lives in a Moroccan Village.
Women in the Middle East: Retrieved August 11, , from http: Robert Appleton Company, Work Cited Stacey, Judith. Resources "Lyman Beecher's Sermons on Intemperance primary document. Facts On File News Services, n. Works Cited Derrickson, Teresa. International Fiction Review Works Cited Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Mating Ideals View Full Essay.
Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed. Herdsmen of the Sun. Women and men in the Enga te. How the Enga cope with frost: Responses to climatic perturbations in the central highlands of New Guinea.
First Constable Martha Taian. Hideaway Hotel, National Capital District. Secondly, it was important for a man in traditional society to continue his family name into future lineages McMahon, Marrying many wives ensured that the husband would have many male children to carry on his name.
It also meant that one would be remembered and honored long after their death through his children and grandchildren Jacobson and Burton, In the agricultural perspective, many wives meant that one would have necessary laborers for farming, taking care of livestock and performing all household chores. This was coupled with provision of help when necessity arose. A larger family was symbolic of strength and unity.
It was also seen as a way to maintain happiness and add meaning to life. Having many wives was also a route of keeping the man from being amorous.
The reason was that most wives denied their husbands conjugal rights after childbirth for up to two years. Hence, having an additional wife meant the husband would not be unfaithful Jencks and Milton, For the husband, having many wives meant he would get many daughters from them. In most traditional African societies, it was considered a vice for a woman to lack children especially in marriage Jencks and Milton, It was for this reason that most African women preferred to have a co-wife than remain single in ridicule.
As such, polygamy solved the problem of single parenthood. It also offered women the security and dignity required for self-realization. Finally yet importantly, polygamy resulted through the ancient tradition of wife inheritance. The death of a husband whose wife had not passed childbearing age qualified for wife inheritance. All the above reasons applied in traditional African societies. However, in the contemporary world today, most of these practices have been overtaken by time and can no longer be practicable.
Effects on women in polygamous marriages. In my view, polygamy is a way of life that should not be allowed in society due to its negative implications. Primarily, it creates male dominated marriages where the woman is left voiceless in the whole setup. Secondly, it forces women into subordinate roles and results in unworkable families full of strife, abuse and incest Ward, Polygamous families usually live in isolated communities that are totally unaffected by the outside world.
The seclusion of these towns raises eyebrows concerning security, safety and health of the town dwellers, state law enforcers, federal laws and the country at large Beaman and Calder, It can therefore be argued women face greater risks in polygamous marriages. The standard argument remains that polygamy subordinates women and fails to treat the latter as equals with men. Some scholars argue that the state should not take interest in voluntary family arrangements McMahon, The reason behind it being that it would illegitimately endorse one comprehensive doctrine over others.
To them, an unjust family arrangement is one that undermines the equality of women and fails to recognize that wives are equal citizens with their husbands. As such, polygamy is a structural inegalitarian practice that subjects women to higher risks of harmful effects compared to men McMahon, It is for this reason that polygamy should be forbidden since it denies women the liberty, rights and opportunities available to men.
In essence, polygamy represents an unjustified asymmetry of power between men and women and in my opinion should therefore be banned. By exposing almost all women to early and prolonged dangers of pregnancy, polygamy results in high fertility rates of between seven and nine children in these countries.
The introduction of low-priced and effective healthcare and sanitary technology from developed countries is also a contributing factor McMahon, The control of sexually transmitted infections becomes overly difficult in the practice of polygamy Beaman and Calder, Take for instance a man who has five wives under his wing. He will engage in sexual relations with all of them and since he is married to all, using protection becomes inconsequential. If either the man or one of the wives is suffering from a sexually transmitted disease, every other participant in the fold is at risk of contracting it.
In a study conducted in Nigeria, West Africa, it was found that those men in the survey had more than three or more wives Beaman and Calder, This meant that they were more likely to engage in extra-marital sex and were at higher risk of contacting sexually transmitted diseases and infecting their wives.
This proves women were at higher risk from men with three or more wives both as their wives and as extramarital sex partners. As a form of behavior, Christian missionaries and Eurasian societies consider polygamy morally wrong.
Well-read Christian-African elites in sub Saharan Africa believe polygamy is backward, bush and barbaric behavior Jencks and Milton, To outsiders, polygamy is a highly undetestable social system whose origin is traced back to pre-colonial times. In addition, polygamy often coincides with crimes that target women and children such as incest, sexual assault, statutory rape and failure to pay child support Jencks and Milton, Another argument against polygamy is that more often than not, it is likely to present harmful effects especially towards the women and children.
Women in polygamous marriages are at higher risk of having low esteem issues, depression and constant worry compared to women in monogamous relationships. Studies have also revealed these women enjoy less marital satisfaction and more problematic mother-child relationships Bennion, Additionally, women in polygamous marriages are prone to depression when they become pregnant since their husbands divert their sexual attention to the other wives.
These women are typically subservient to their husbands who only value them for the childbearing role. Consequently, polygamous women are left devoid of any powers to exercise any control of the marriage. This buds into feelings of powerlessness and emotional turmoil Bennion, Several studies also show that only a small fraction of women in polygamous marriages work outside the home Ward, Most of them lack the mandate or ability to seek employment.
Research on polygamy amongst the Arabs revealed that first wives are inferior to junior and subsequent wives. They experienced more economic hardships and less satisfactory relationships with their husbands. Some scholars also noted that polygamous marriages caused harmful psychological effects on a number of first wives Ward, This caused most of them to seek mental health treatment and psychiatric outpatient services.
Several of these psychological disorders seen widely among first wives included anxiety, depression and somaticized symptoms Ward, It has also been shown that first wives and teachers described relationships with husbands and fathers as neglectful. This showed a lack of interest and minimal interaction with them and their children.
This caused them to suffer adverse effects from the polygamous union. On the contrary, junior wives were highly favored by their husbands. They were allowed to obtain more economic resources and support. Effects on children from polygamous familiesResearch indicates that children from polygamous families are at heightened risks of developing harmful effects. There is considerable evidence that points to these children experiencing higher incidence of marital conflicts, family violence and disruptions than do children of monogamous families Jacobson and Burton, Moreover, children from polygamous backgrounds are more likely to develop behavioral and socializing problems.
The same problems are also reflected in their performance in school. Most teachers unanimously agreed that problems faced by polygamous children are somewhat similar Jacobson and Burton, These include disobedience, hyperactivity, repeated lying to a teacher or person in authority, sibling fights, enuresis and stuttering.
Their levels of academic achievement were also below average. Polygamous children displayed inability to concentrate in class, had low attendance, incompletion of homework, maladjustment to classroom procedures, peer and teacher relational problems Jacobson and Burton, On the other hand, situational problems are likely to arise such as higher number of siblings, higher number of parental figures, absence of the father figure, competition and jealousy of family members over resources and emotional relationships with the father Bennion, In addition, living areas were often crowded and economic resources taxed to the limit due to the high number of dependants.
These children do not grow up to experience the parental love that is overflowing in monogamous systems Bennion, Such children will be tempted to resort to other avenues to compensate the missing love. It is then that they find themselves trapped in the world of crime, adultery and other social vices.
Children from polygamous marriages are more susceptible to drug abuse Bennion, In fact, it appears that a larger percentage of men in Utah married than elsewhere in the United States at the time. Probably half of those living in Utah Territory in experienced life in a polygamous family as a husband, wife, or child at some time during their lives. The experience of plural marriage toward the end of the 19th century was substantially different from that of earlier decades.
Beginning in , the U. Outside opponents mounted a campaign against the practice, stating that they hoped to protect Mormon women and American civilization. For their part, many Latter-day Saint women publicly defended the practice of plural marriage, arguing in statements that they were willing participants.
Supreme Court found the anti-polygamy laws to be constitutional in , federal officials began prosecuting polygamous husbands and wives during the s. When convicted, they paid fines and submitted to jail time. To help their husbands avoid prosecution, plural wives often separated into different households or went into hiding under assumed names, particularly when pregnant or after giving birth.
But the demographic makeup of the worldwide Church membership had begun to change. Beginning in the s converts outside the United States were asked to build up the Church in their homelands rather than move to Utah. In subsequent decades, Latter-day Saints migrated away from the Great Basin to pursue new opportunities.
Plural marriage had never been encouraged outside of concentrated populations of Latter-day Saints. Especially in these newly formed congregations outside of Utah, monogamous families became central to religious worship and learning.
As the Church grew and spread beyond the American West, the monogamous nuclear family was well suited to an increasingly mobile and dispersed membership. For many who practiced it, plural marriage was a significant sacrifice. Despite the hardships some experienced, the faithfulness of those who practiced plural marriage continues to benefit the Church in innumerable ways.
Through the lineage of these 19th-century Saints have come many Latter-day Saints who have been faithful to their gospel covenants as righteous mothers and fathers, loyal disciples of Jesus Christ, and devoted Church members, leaders, and missionaries.
Although members of the contemporary Church are forbidden to practice plural marriage, modern Latter-day Saints honor and respect these pioneers who gave so much for their faith, families, and community. The Church acknowledges the contribution of scholars to the historical content presented in this article; their work is used with permission. Originally published October For instances of plural marriage in the Bible, see Genesis The Church President periodically set apart others to perform plural marriages.
See Official Declaration 1. Daynes, More Wives than One: Transformation of the Mormon Marriage System, — Urbana: University of Illinois Press, , —9; Thomas G.
Alexander, Mormonism in Transition:
Polygamy in America - Polygamy is defined as “a marriage that includes more than two partners.” There are different types of polygamy, these include: polygyny, where a man has multiple wives, polyandry, in which a woman has multiple husbands, and group marriage, where a .
More Essays: polygamy. Polygamy is the practice of a man taking more than one wife at the same time. Polyandry is when a woman takes more that one husband at the same time. Polyandry is rare compared to polygamy, because it is only known to be inexistence in two parts of the world.
Free Essays from Bartleby | African Polygamy Of the five recognized forms of marriage in Kenyan law, three are monogamous - Christian, civil, and Hindu. This essay primarily addresses plural marriage as practiced by the Latter-day Saints between and , following their exodus to the U.S. West and before the Manifesto.
Free Essay: When someone “pops the question”, he is normally knelt on one knee, the paradigm of a prince charming. The illusion is shattered when the. Writing sample of essay on a given topic "The Disadvantages Of Polygamy".