Revised edition 2nd ed. Volume as in Vol. Volumes as in 4 vols. In most cases, write out the complete term or phrase with the abbreviation following in parentheses to continue using the abbreviation throughout the rest of the document.
Once an abbreviation is used, it must continue to be used throughout. Avoid beginning a sentence with an abbreviation, especially those that begin with a lower-case letter. Do not use spaces within an abbreviation e. Numbers, Mathematics, and Statistics Numbers: Use numerals for numbers 10 and higher Exceptions: Spell out the word for numbers that begin a sentence, title, or text heading Writers can start a sentence with a year expressed in numerals.
Use the symbol when preceded by a numeral e. Strategies You can eliminate wordiness in your writing if. You likely included "false starts" or filler phrases in your writing when trying to put some ideas or arguments into words; this is natural. Don't worry about it as you write, but, after you're done with your draft, pass through your paper at least once, focusing only on eliminating unnecessary language. Pay particular attention to sections you struggled to get out.
Getting away from your paper will help give you the distance you'll need to see with "fresh eyes" what language is needed and what's not. Most people tend to fall into two or three patterns of wordiness when they write. Learn what your patterns are, and edit with those patterns in mind. Replacement Phrases Peruse the following list and identify changes you can make to reduce wordiness in your writing. Omit the filler phrases "it is," "there is," and "there are" at the beginning of sentences; these often delay the sentence's true subject and verb.
Wordy It is expensive to upgrade computer systems. Concise Upgrading computer systems is expensive. Combine two closely related short sentences by omitting part of one. Wordy The director is concerned about problems. Concise The director is concerned about typical problems with lighting, sound, and props. Omit "this" from the beginning of a sentence by joining it to the preceding sentence with a comma.
Wordy Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols. Concise Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols, lessening the ozone layer's depletion. Change "which" or "that" constructions to an "-ing" word. Wordy The committee, which meets monthly, oversees accounting procedures and audits. Concise The committee, meeting monthly, oversees accounting procedures and audits. Omit "which" or "that" altogether when possible.
Wordy Because the fluid, which was brown and poisonous, was dumped into the river, the company that was negligent had to shut down. Concise Because the brown, poisonous fluid was dumped into the river, the negligent company had to shut down. Replace passive verbs with active verbs. In passive constructions, the subject of the sentence is being acted upon; in active constructions, the subject is the actor. Wordy Rain forests are being destroyed by uncontrolled logging. Concise Uncontrolled logging is destroying rain forests.
Change "is" or "was" when they occur alone to a strong verb. Wordy A new fire curtain is necessary for the stage. The APA got involved in journal publishing in Primarily known for the simplicity of its reference citation style, the Manual also established standards for language use that had far-reaching effects. Particularly influential were the "Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals," first published as a modification to the edition, which provided practical alternatives to sexist language then in common usage.
The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the most current. It was released in July after four years of development.
The Publication Manual Revision Task Force of the American Psychological Association established parameters for the revision based on published critique; user comments; commissioned reviews; and input from psychologists, nurses, librarians, business leaders, publishing professionals, and APA governance groups APA, a, b. The APA explained the issuing of a new edition only eight years after the fifth edition by pointing to the increased use of online source or online access to academic journals 6th edition, p.
The sixth edition is accompanied by a style website, apastyle. Sample papers in the first printing of the sixth edition contained errors. APA staff posted all of the corrections online for free in a single document on October 1, , and shortly thereafter alerted users to the existence of the corrections in an APA blog entry. APA Style uses an author-date reference citation system in the text with an accompanying reference list.
That means that to cite any reference in a paper, the writer should cite the author and year of the work, either by putting both in parentheses separated by a comma parenthetical citation or by putting the author in the narrative of the sentence and the year in parentheses narrative citation.
Schmidt and Oh described a fear among the public that the findings of science are not actually real. In the APA reference list, the writer should provide the author, year, title, and source of the cited work in an alphabetical list of references.
This paper is usually more complex and includes everything found in a literature review, as well as an abstract, sections on the method, the results, and the discussion of the results, and appendixes or tables and figures, if necessary. There are several key guidelines to keep in mind when writing. APA Style mandates a running head, which is a short title that appears at the top of every page, including the title page.
An example of a running head is: The abstract is a concise summary of the elements of the paper, usually including information from the conclusion, and should be no more than words. APA Style also frequently makes use of headings, which are bold and centered, and subheads, which are bold and left aligned.
Because APA Style is especially for scholarly writing, the writer should always use the third person point of view and take care to avoid the use of figurative or poetic language, such as metaphors or hyperbole. This format uses the author-date method to properly cite outside knowledge. There are several ways to properly cite the author in the text, but two of the best ways are to use a signal phrase or to put the reference information in parentheses after the quote. A signal phrase, for example, divides up the citation material:
APA Style® originated in , when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.
APA format is one of several different writing formats used for publications, papers, essays, and books today. This particular style is established by the American Psychological Association, and used by professionals in psychology and many other sciences.
Psychology Definition of APA STYLE: specific guidelines and standards for communicating materials. For example, writing (e.g., grammar) and formatting (e.g., data display, headings). These gu. APA (American Psychological Association) is a style of writing that social and behavioral scientists use to present scholarly written materials in their professional fields. It was developed to establish a standard writing style that would make communication of scientific ideas easier and more consistent.
The constantly evolving APA writing style is undergoing some major changes, mainly as an attempt to make scientific papers more accessible to non-scientists. The main thing to remember is that the APA writing style guide is a general guide, not a set rules. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. APA Style Introduction // Purdue Writing .