Hence, the fetus of a drinking woman would have had its first drink long before it was born. Science has proven that alcohol easily crosses the placenta to the developing fetus, whose alcohol level is usually the same as its mother Pilletteri, , p. A woman who drinks alcohol during pregnancy is also at risk for spontaneous preterm labor, giving birth to a low birth weight or small for gestational age baby Bird, , p.
Saying no to alcohol during pregnancy should become a public outcry. Every woman who decides to become pregnant needs to abstain totally from alcohol use. There should be regular screenings and information sessions during prenatal visits so that parents-to-be who may be overwhelmed by their pregnancy, know and feel that they have the support of others.
This is especially important among young mothers, those with unintentional pregnancies, and school drop-outs who may tend to place the blame on the fetus. Group sessions for pregnant women should be conducted by every major prenatal and childbirth facility.
Many who have experienced it live to tell stories of fear, neglect, hate, hunger, intimate partner violence, and suicide attempts. An otherwise unwanted pregnancy can really become a bundle of joy. There are both prenatal and postnatal abnormalities associated with FAS, ranging from mild developmental delays to severe brain damage.
Common features include microcephaly, small for gestational age, facial dysmorphology, poor motor coordination, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, poor reasoning and judgment skills Thomas, Warren, and Hewitt, , pp. Several studies done on mice, rats, and dogs have confirmed that prenatal alcohol exposure produces these effects.
The amount of alcohol consumed and the period during fetal development when it is consumed are directly linked to the severity of effects. Although dangerous at every stage, alcohol use during the first trimester produces most of the facial abnormalities associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. Children exposed to alcohol prenatally can also suffer from brain abnormalities without exhibiting these facial features.
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Are there any possible ways to treat the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? The contemporary medical world is very much concerned with the female alcohol abuse phenomenon and the appearance of a group of inclinations known as the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is nowadays one of the major worries prenatal medicine is facing.
Humanity has always yielded to the pressure of different chemical substances that eventually caused it irreparable damage. Alcohol is not the last one in the list of these destructive substances. People relax and forget that they are supposed to think not only about their health but also about the health of their future offspring.
This especially concerns women, as they are the ones to deliver the next generation into the world. This syndrome is the giant problem, which needs to be fixed desperately. It is very important to understand its nature, forms of development and irreparable consequences in order to analyze the range of the problem. FAS and possible outcomes. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS is a terms used to define a number of various physical and mental defects of a baby that can appear when a woman drinks alcohol during the period of her pregnancy.
This syndrome unites different degrees inclinations in the psychophysical development of a newborn. AS alcohol is the substance that causes these pathologies it is necessary to define what fit in this category. The term alcohol is applicable for: In other words alcohol with its most dangerous for the fetus product ethanol, which is so quickly adopted by the female organism, causes a wide range of destructive consequences.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome affects three major spheres of the fetus development:. Growth retardation, which includes such manifestations as the reduction of normal weight and length of a newborn infant. This pathology starts during the prenatal period and continues in the postnatal development of the child, creating new problems.
This brain damage is the primary, irreversible danger of the syndrome, which directly leads to a group of different disorders that depend on what brain areas, are especially damaged. In some cases the brain is change make the brain severely deformed and unrecognizable. These possible disorders include learning disabilities and inclinations in the behavior of children with FAS.
The third sphere, which is influenced by alcohol, is the appearance of the infant. These abnormalities include the size of eyes and head and many other features [Goodstadt, ]. They cannot concentrate, talk too much and are not capable of making proper decisions.
Such children are completely helpless and unprotected. The outcomes of the FAS are severe and the only reason for its existance is maternal alcohol abuse, which affects the development of vital stages of the fetus formation.
Children with FAS are not able to adapt in the contemporary world, which requires independence and a large luggage of knowledge and skills in order to succeed. In utero fetus development. In utero child is "a member of the species homo sapiens, at any stage of development, who is carried in the womb". Thi is written in the legistaltion which was approved on the 20th of March by the US Senate.
As the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome may be gained during the period of pregnancy it is very important to understand how alcohol affects the fetus. It is common knowledge that fetus is very vulnerable, especially during the first three trimesters.
The main reason for this vulnerability is that throughout this periods its basic formations. The unborn baby is influenced by everything his mother is exposed to. The same thing works for alcohol. Females metabolize alcohol very quickly and this is the primary cause of their necessity to abstain from alcohol.
The fetus is already in high danger of obtaining FAS if the pregnant female consumes around 3 ounces of pure alcohol per day 1[Caleekal, ]. Alcohol may cause spasm of placenta vessels and the umbilical cord. As the amount of zinc in the cells is rapidly reduced their growth and development is damaged.
In its turn, the mutation of DNA in the fetus cells leads to pathologies of the development of different organs and tissues [Cole, ]. Alcohol is also the cause of the vitamin shortage in the fetus body. Metabolism and hormonal process are corrupted, too2. Basically saying fetus organs and systems suffers the most and CNS being one of the most important ones becomes the most severe damaged one. Some women during the first three or four weeks of their pregnancy do not know that they are pregnant.
Alcohol abuse during this period affects the formation of cartilage during the whole embryonic stage. This period becomes vital for the future infant, as it is the period of its formation. The effect of alcohol throughout this period is immense and even the lesser amount of alcohol may cause some changes. These destructive processes, which occur inside the fetus organism, cause irreparable damage that it made on the genetic level. Heavy abuse, causing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome with severe disorders has nowadays become unbelievably widespread.
All this changes throughout the period the development of the fetus cause mental disabilities and the sphere of behavior of the future child. The period of pregnancy is a period of increased sensitivity towards any biological influences and improper develop met cause by alcohol abuse is critically prohibited. Changes for newborns with FAS. As it has been already mentioned Fetal Alcohol Syndrome causes certain mental and physical birth defects, which make the living of the newborn harsh and sometimes even impossible to resist.
It is obvious that all the processes occurring in FAS child the organism are usually delayed or transformed. Children start walk and talk later than they should have started. Infants have a very hard time trying to focus their attention on one object or follow it trajectory. They cannot fix their attention on bright objects and have difficulties with hearing concentration.
The hypertension of the muscles stays much longer and the first attempts to pronounce some slabs are in the best cases tardy [Haase, ]. As so many women drink alcohol nowadays some of these changes have become quiet common. Nevertheless, FAS remains a combination of all these features, making the life of the newborn very hard. Newborns with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome face a lot of changes compared to healthy infants.
It starts with external facial abnormal changes and end with brain dysfunctions that such infants experience. The first change occurring to a fetus and observable after birth are physical changes. These are the first signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which become the base for the following set of tests. FAS physical changes vary greatly, because the transformations completely depend on the alcohol exposure of the fetus. Sometimes the physical appearance of a baby is completely irreparable even with the means of cosmetic surgery.
As it has been already said, the facial abnormalities of a newborn may vary. But the basic ones are the next: These facial changes may come in different combinations and sets.
Along with a very small weight, length and other growth retardation, the facial changes occurring to newborns with FAS may even take the following forms: The list of defects also spreads over organs of the newborn. Along with liver and kidney and other organic dysfunctions the newborn faces cardiac defects, too. A child with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome does not differ from ordinary children with their physical appearance abnormalities and other dysfunctions.
The major difference is the behavioral component, which is controlled by a damaged Central Nervous System. Their life expectancy is way shorter than of an ordinary person. This irreparable damage to the brain it is evaluation is way stronger than the facial changes that the FAS produces.
If a women abuses alcohol during the period of her pregnancy this means that her baby will be severely affected by this substance. Changes in mental development start occurring from the very beginning of the alcohol exposure of a fetus. As the cells are affects and the functioning becomes unhealthy, brain cells experience difficulties, too.
In a long run, patients with FAS demonstrate a number of intellectual dysfunctions. Streissguth reports that severe changes happen in this sphere resulting in low IQ scores. The range of the scores starts with 16 and ends with Those children that have the lowest scores cannot even learn the skills of self-service. It goes without saying that such a deformed intellectual sphere causes serious problems in the everyday life of a child.
The learning disabilities children face makes the abilities way more limited. As they cannot learn anything they constantly need someone to be with them and take care by providing sometimes even their basic biological needs. Their hyperactive uncontrolled behavior by providing ungrounded and illogical thoughts make it very hard to communicate with such children.
Mental retardation of such children makes it in some cases impossible to attend a school. They start talking late and have a hard time expressing what they want. FAS patients have a hard time with puzzles, drawing, planning, and with making correct conclusions out of the phrases. Sometimes they may use inappropriate word constructions with they can remember. As all the mental processes are tardy.
Here is an example of the thought of a boy with FAS — his dream was to break all the windows in the house of his parents, to throw the parents out of the window to the garden, where they were supposed to turn into what was growing in the garden. The world perception of children with FAS is completely changed and sometimes completely mentally ill.
These children experience the damage of logical thinking. Sometimes they cannot find the difference and resemblance between two objects, cannot exclude an object that does not belong to a given group and have a mixed classification of notions. Children with FAS present insufficient self-regulation, inadequate emotional reactions on different or certain irritants.
Their behavior and mood are often instable and sometime unpredictable. FAS children lack attention, cannot focus on what they need to.
Are often very irritable and get mad easily. All these manifestations of mental disorders emphasize the damage that metal development alcohol corruption causes.
All the processes are unstable, tardy and some are absent at all. FAS patients are sometimes unable to accept social norms of behavior, which makes their life even harder not within their families but especially in external relations with other people.
Growth retardation, facial abnormalities and mental disorders caused by irreversible minimal brain dysfunctions, which occur under the influence of alcohol, do produce countless barriers in the lives of FAS patients. FAS patient cannot life they life of an ordinary person. They cannot finish school properly, find a good job, cannot provide themselves with money enough at least for their treatment. These people do not have normal personal life and cannot live by themselves.
FAS prevent people from being able to communicate properly. The result is that all these barriers convert them into people without any job, personal life and future. And the only reason for that is their exposure to alcohol in their fetal stage development. Ordinary people are afraid of interacting with FAS patients because they simply do not know how to behave with them and not every person posses the patience to understand and take these people for what they are.
Another barrier is that some attempts of FAS patient to socialize with other people, especially in the young age end up with acts of violence addressed to them. Nevertheless, there is some hope for people with FAS under the condition that they will receive correct education and social skills examples. This is the basic reason these two major barriers need to be analyzed by ordinary people, which would help FAS patients a lot.
The process of social adaptation of FAS patient is rather complicated and is not successful in majority of the cases. It has already been mentioned that people with FAS have problems with logical thinking. This is especially observable through their inability to make judgments and constant poor reasoning they perform.
Nevertheless, it is possible to indicate the major ones: As FAS patients cannot interpret social cues, therefore do not understand non-verbal messages they do not see when for instance a person is not interested in something anymore.
They just perceive what they want to perceive, which is the result of a mental underdevelopment.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a series of birth defects such as physical, mental, behavioral and learning problems caused by the mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Kenneth Jones and David Smith at the University of Washington in Seattle officially identified Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in (Golden 1).
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome “If women didn’t drink anymore during pregnancy, there would never be another baby born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol .
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a series of birth defects caused by alcoholism or consumption of alcohol on a regular basis during pregnancy. The baby, who has no part to play in the mother’s drinking, ends up with severe problems before and after birth. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a terms used to define a number of various physical and mental defects of a baby that can appear when a woman drinks alcohol during the period of her pregnancy. This syndrome unites different degrees inclinations in the psychophysical development of a newborn.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition that results from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. There are several problems that are caused by fetal alcohol syndrome; these are physical deformities, mental retardation, learning disorders, vision difficulties and behavioral problems. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Introductions to Addictions HumanNet02 Mary Beth Mulcahy October 14, Drinking alcohol pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy can cause abnormalities in the infant which is a condition called fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or a less severe condition termed fetal .