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Big Idea 2: Free Energy

❶Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell.

Big Idea 1: Evolution

Contents for IGCSE Biology 2016-2019:
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Covers Mendelian genetics, evolution, biodiversity of life forms, ecology, conservation biology, metabolism and energetics, structure and function of biomolecules, cell structure and function, animal physiology, and plant physiology.

Topics include oceanography, ecology, physiology, behavior, conservation, fisheries, exploration, and activism. Honors section research project. Spotting misinformation; causal fallacies; statistical traps; data visualization; big data; interpreting scientific claims; fake news and social media; refutation techniques.

WARD Follows the history of life from its first formation including the origin of life and life's diversification from single cells through multi-celluarity.

Examines fossils and DNA evidence from understanding the sequence of events and evolutionary history of life. Specific content varies and must be individually evaluated. Credit does not apply to major requirements without approval. Martin-Morris Explores the use of various cell and molecular laboratory techniques, such as PCR, cloning, gel electrophoresis, and bacterial transformation through hands-on experiments.

Students produce a portfolio of techniques they have learned. Boersma Students make a short film on a biological story, concept, or theory. Includes developing a storyline, getting the shots to make compelling viewing, editing, and producing a short video. Self Covers the major systems of the human body integumentary, skeletomuscular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular and reproductive and the interactions of cells and tissues that help humans live, grow and change.

Intended for students considering careers in health or science or who want a greater understanding of the parts and functions of the human body. Focuses on engineering and innovating necessary biology tools from raw materials bread, soap, preservatives, textiles, penicillin, salt, etc. BIOL Biological Impacts of Climate Change 3 NW Covers the biological impacts of climate change, including changes in species distributions and interactions, altered phenology, and ecosystem dynamics.

Discusses implications of these biological impacts for society e. Olmstead Classification and diversity of seed plants; concepts and principles of classification, lab and field study of common plant families in Washington, and skill development for identification of species. One weekend field trip. Plant descriptive characters evident in the field with eye and hand lens. Hardiness and landscape applications. Emphasis on understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the approach based on case studies.

Analysis of basic principles of animal and plant physiology, with emphasis on cellular processes that mediate organismic processes. Serves as gateway to upper-division courses in physiology.

Emphasizes patterns, processes, and consequences of evolutionary change. Serves as gateway to level courses and seminars in evolution, population genetics, sociobiology, conservation biology, phylogenetics, and systematics.

Emphasis on molecular approaches to understand cell structure, function, and regulation, and the analysis of experimental design and data interpretation. Serves as a prerequisite to advanced level cell, molecular, and developmental biology courses and seminars. Emphasizes understanding species interactions in biological communities and relationships of communities to environment.

Serves as a prerequisite to level courses and senior seminars in ecology, population, and conservation biology. Zeman Recognition of cellular and tissue structures in plants and animals with correlations to normal physiology and disease states.

Schivell Recent biological advances studied in the context of our society, designed to foster critical thinking, public awareness, and policy impact. Topics may include human reproductive technologies, genetic engineering, embryonic stem cell research, and medical scanning improvements.

Considers how natural selection and the legacies of our human, primate, mammalian and bacterial ancestries have shaped our biology. Topics include mental disorders, aging, cancer, diet, obesity, diabetes, infectious diseases, racism, and health differences between human groups.

Students make their own hive, rear a queen bee, and prepare a publishable scientific paper and learn basic beekeeping technique. Peer facilitators assist with labs, lectures, and course administration and gain direct classroom experience. No independent teaching or grading. Opportunities vary by quarter and instructor.

Klicka Focuses on the physiology and preparation of birds for use in scientific collections, including hands-on methods for sustainable and accurate display. Allows a structured, real world biology work experiences off-campus. All internships must be approved by instructor. Schivell Integrated reading, writing, and experimentation in molecular biology. Design and implementation of experiments using modern molecular biology techniques to address current questions in biology.

Emphasizes reading and evaluating primary research literature. Includes practice in different scientific writing styles. Strong emphasis on reading and interpreting primary research literature. Paredez Students perform initial characterization of novel genes through epitope tagging and localization.

Cellular Aspects 3 NW H. De La Iglesia Examines the physiology of membrane transport, nervous signaling, sensory systems, behavioral modulation, muscle, neuronal and endocrine integration, and circadian rhythms. Emphasis on the cellular and tissue level. Based on analyses of primary research articles. This course does not cover infectious diseases.

Cabernard Examines the basic mechanisms used by stem cells to form differentiated cells. Offers opportunities for follow-up experiments based on initial observations. BIOL Neuroethology 4 NW Comparative exploration of the neural, hormonal, and genetic mechanisms that control behaviors necessary for survival and reproduction in animals.

Model systems discussed include animal communication, mate choice, escape behavior, spatial orientation, homing and migration, and biological rhythms.

Students are expected to understand fundamental concepts of neuroscience from any of the following prerequisite courses. Gardner Focuses on current research in primary literature in molecular and cellular biology. Covers three topics in depth that change to match immediately active topic areas. Morphological changes in developing animals; experimental analysis of developing systems; underlying genetic and biochemical regulation of development. Parrish Uses molecular biology, cell biology, and genetic approaches to investigate how nutrient signals influence neuron growth.

BIOL Molecular Evolution 5 NW Survey of empirical approaches to the study of molecular evolution and ecology, drawing on examples from a variety of taxa and the recent literature.

Topics include DNA sequencing and systematics, fingerprinting approaches in behavioral ecology, and adaptive evolution at the molecular level. Parichy Analysis of intertwined developmental and evolutionary processes studied through evolution of developmental genes, proteins, and expression patterns in different organisms. Includes reading and analyzing implications for ecology evolution, and human disease.

Covers mutation, dominance, redundancy, epistasis, and key technologies for discovery of gene function as well as embryogenesis, meristem formation, flower development, and other problems in plant development. Includes theoretical background as well as aspects that range from the molecular and cellular basis to the ecological and evolutionary implications of biological rhythms.

Focuses on the foundations of data wrangling, data analysis, and statistics, particularly the development of automated techniques that are reproducible and scalable to large data sets. Bergstrom Game theory is a tool for modeling and understanding biological interactions ranging from parental care to mate choice to animal contests to symbiosis. Studies conceptual foundations and basic methods and applies game theory in an evolutionary context to better understand the games that organisms play.

Buckley Explores the role of physiology in the ecology and evolution of animals. Special emphasis on how physiology influences responses to environmental change. Van Volkenburgh Advanced physiology seminar focusing on plant sensory mechanisms, transport and integration of information, and behavior in response to a variety of environmental stimuli. Carrington Studies the ecology of the oceans and coastal regions, emphasizing benthic communities common to the Pacific Northwest.

Kim Explores physiological mechanisms that underlie ecological observations, including how above- and below-ground microclimates develop and affect plant physiological processes. Discusses acclimation to environmental change along with species differences in physiological processes and plant's occupation of heterogeneous environments. Laboratories emphasize field measurement techniques.

Daniel Physical biology emphasizing a mechanical approach to ecological, evolutionary, and physiological questions. Basic principles underlying fluid and solid mechanics to explore responses of animals to flows, loads, and motions.

Riffell Examines behavioral and physiological processes within an environmental framework. Uses a synthetic approach emphasizing applications to cell biology, physiology and behavior, and biomechanics.

BIOL Marine Zoology 5 NW Survey of groups of invertebrate animals represented in the San Juan Archipelago; natural history, functional morphology, ecology, distribution, habitat, adaptation, trophic interrelationships, and evolution.

BIOL Biology of Cannabinoids 1 NW Focuses on the plant biochemistry of and human biology interaction with cannabinoid compounds such as those found in the genus Cannabis. Representatives of all major and most minor phyla are collected, observed live, and studied in detail. Taken at Friday Harbor Laboratories.

Not open for credit to students who have taken BIOL Ruesink Study of marine ecological processes such as recruitment, disturbance, competition, and predation, and their effects on the structure and diversity of marine communities. Weekend field trips to local intertidal habitats required. Laboratory work emphasizes structures and functions. Emphasizes annelids and related worms, mollusks, and arthropods.

BIOL Research Apprenticeship in Marine Science 15 NW Immersive quarter in research n close collaboration with one-three faculty mentors on a specific topic that varies with the apprenticeship. Students engage in laboratory or field research in marine science, involving gathering, analyzing, and communicating results as part of a research team.

BIOL Herpetology 5 NW Amphibian and reptile biology, with emphasis on evolutionary relationships, ecology, behavior, morphology, physiology, and taxonomy. Lectures emphasize major trends and mechanisms maintaining diversity in form and function. Labs cover morphology and taxonomy with emphasis on the local fauna. Weekend, camping field trips required. Topics include paleobiogeography, morphology-based phylogenetics, evolutionary rates, biodiversity curves, functional morphology, morphometrics, and paleoecology.

Emphasis on application of methods using fossil and modern specimens. Santana Mata Uses mammals as a model system to investigate functional morphology. Focus on discussing primary literature, modern methodological tools used in functional morphology, and group research projects.

Research-intensive format allows students to conduct research projects using resources and specimens in the Biology Department and Burke mammalogy collection. Ammirati General survey of the fungi with emphasis on life cycles, structure, physiology, economic importance. You should understand the use of isotonic drinks and high energy drinks in sport.

Know that water may move across cell membranes via osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane. Be able to recognise, draw and interpret diagrams that model osmosis. You should be able to plot, draw and interpret appropriate graphs relevant to osmosis.

Revise the practical you did on the effect of a range of salt or sugar solutions on plant material. You should understand that active transport moves substances from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution against a concentration gradient, the opposite of osmosis. This requires energy from respiration.

Without active transport, sufficient food for the organism may not be absorbed from the gut. You should be able to link the structure of a root hair cell to its function. Active transport allows mineral ions to be absorbed into plant root hairs from very dilute solutions in the soil.

Plants require ions for healthy growth. It also allows sugar molecules to be absorbed from lower concentrations in the gut into the blood which has a higher sugar concentration.

Sugar molecules are used for cell respiration. You should be able to explain and describe how diffusion, osmosis and active transport are used to transport materials into and out of cells and the differences between these three processes. In terms of exchanging substances at various interfaces you should know all about gas exchange in the lungs, the function of villi in the small intestine, leaf structure and gas exchange and how the gills of fish enable an efficient gas exchange.

Know that the human digestive system which provides the body with nutrients and the respiratory system that provides it with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

In each case they provide dissolved materials that need to be moved quickly around the body in the blood by the circulatory system e. Know that damage to any of these systems can be debilitating if not fatal.

Although there has been huge progress in surgical techniques, especially with regard to coronary heart disease, many interventions would not be necessary if individuals reduced their risks through improved diet and lifestyle. Cells are the basic building blocks of all living organisms.

A tissue is a group of cells with a similar structure and function. Organs are aggregations of tissues performing specific functions. Organs are organised into organ systems, which work together to form organisms. You should be able to develop an understanding of size and scale in relation to cells, tissues, organs and systems. This section does assumes knowledge of the digestive system studied in Key Stage 3 science.

The digestive system is an example of an organ system in which several organs work together to digest and absorb food. You should be able to relate the action of enzymes to metabolism. You should be able to describe the nature of enzyme molecules and relate their activity to temperature and pH changes.

You should be able to carry out rate calculations for chemical reactions. Appreciate that you can measure rates of reaction by different methods. Know that enzymes catalyse specific reactions in living organisms due to the specific shape of their active site. You should be able to use other models to explain enzyme action. See also Enzymes and Biotechnology gcse chemistry notes. You should be able to recall the sites of production and the action of the enzymes amylase, proteases and lipases.

You should be able to understand simple word equations but no chemical symbol equations are required. Digestive enzymes convert food into small soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Carbohydrases break down carbohydrates to simple sugars. Lipases break down lipids fats to glycerol and fatty acids. Know that the products of digestion are used to build new carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

You should have used qualitative reagents to identify biological molecules such as starch, sugars and proteins know the chemical tests for them. Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It is alkaline to neutralise hydrochloric acid from the stomach. It also emulsifies fat to form small droplets which increases the surface area. The alkaline conditions and large surface area increase the rate of fat breakdown by lipase.

Also revise 1 The use qualitative reagents to test for a range of foods e. You should have investigated the effect of pH on the rate of reaction of amylase enzyme by using a continuous sampling technique to determine the time taken to completely digest a starch solution at a range of pH values.

Iodine reagent is to be used to test for starch every 30 seconds. Temperature must be controlled by use of a water bath or electric heater. You should know the structure and functioning of the human heart and lungs, including how lungs are adapted for gaseous exchange. The heart is an organ that pumps blood around the body in a double circulatory system.

The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The left ventricle pumps blood around the rest of the body. Knowledge of the blood vessels associated with the heart is limited to the aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and coronary arteries. Knowledge of the names of the heart valves is not required. Knowledge of the lungs is restricted to the trachea, bronchi, alveoli and the capillary network surrounding the alveoli.

Know that the natural resting heart rate is controlled by a group of cells located in the right atrium that act as a pacemaker. Artificial pacemakers are electrical devices used to correct irregularities in the heart rate. The body contains three different types of blood vessel: You should be able to explain how the structure of these vessels relates to their functions. You need to be able to use simple compound measures such as rate and carry out rate calculations for blood rate.

Other calculations based on e. Blood is a tissue consisting of plasma, in which the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are suspended and know the function of each component.

Plasma transports proteins and other chemical substances around the body. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which binds to oxygen to transport it from the lungs to the tissues. White blood cells help to protect the body against infection.

Platelets are fragments of cells which initiate the clotting process at wound sites. You should be able to recognise different types of blood cells in a photograph or diagram, and explain how they are adapted to their functions - you should have observed and drawing blood cells seen under a microscope. You need to able to evaluate risks related to use of blood products in medicine. You should be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of treating cardiovascular diseases by drugs, mechanical devices or transplant.

In evaluating methods of treatment you should bear in mind the benefits and risks associated with the treatment. Appreciate the need and use of an artificial heart, valve replacement, artificial blood e. In coronary heart disease an example of cardiovascular disease layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them.

This reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries, resulting in a lack of oxygen for the heart muscle. Inserted stents are used to keep the coronary arteries open. Statins are widely used to reduce blood cholesterol levels which slows down the rate of fatty material deposit. In some people heart valves may become faulty, preventing the valve from opening fully, or the heart valve might develop a leak. You should understand the consequences of faulty valves.

Faulty heart valves can be replaced using biological or mechanical valves. In the case of heart failure a donor heart, or heart and lungs can be transplanted. Artificial hearts are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant, or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery.

You should be able to describe the relationship between health and disease and the interactions between different types of disease. Health is the state of physical and mental wellbeing. Diseases, both communicable diseases and non-communicable, are major causes of ill health. Other factors including diet, stress and life situations may have a profound effect on both physical and mental health. Defects in the immune system mean that an individual is more likely to suffer from infectious diseases.

Viruses living in cells can be the trigger for cancers. Immune reactions initially caused by a pathogen can trigger allergies such as skin rashes and asthma. Severe physical ill health can lead to depression and other mental illness. Be able to translate disease information between graph and numerical forms, construct and interpret frequency tables and diagrams, bar charts and histograms, and use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables.

You also need to understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data, including epidemiological data. You should recall that many noncommunicable diseases are caused by the interaction of a number of factors to include cardiovascular disease, some lung and liver diseases and diseases influenced by nutrition, including Type 2 diabetes.

Be able to explain the effect of lifestyle factors including diet, alcohol and smoking on the incidence of non-communicable diseases at local, national and global levels. Risk factors are linked to an increased rate of a disease. A causal mechanism has been proven for some risk factors, but not in others. The effects of diet, smoking and exercise on cardiovascular disease. The effect of alcohol on the liver and brain function. The effect of smoking on lung disease and lung cancer.

The effects of smoking and alcohol on unborn babies. Carcinogens, including ionising radiation, as risk factors in cancer. Be able to discuss and explain the human and financial cost of these non-communicable diseases to an individual, a local community, a nation or globally.

Many diseases are caused by the interaction of a number of factors. Be able to interpret data about risk factors for specified diseases. You should be able to understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data in terms of risk factors. You should be able to translate information between graphical and numerical forms; and extract and interpret information from charts, graphs and tables in terms of risk factors. You should be able to use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables in terms of risk factors.

You should be able to describe cancer as the result of changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled growth and division. Benign tumours and malignant tumours result from uncontrolled cell division. Benign tumours are growths of abnormal cells which are contained in one area, usually within a membrane. They do not invade other parts of the body. Malignant tumour cells are cancers. They invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body in the blood where they form secondary tumours.

Scientists have identified lifestyle risk factors for various types of cancer including smoking, obesity, common viruses and UV exposure. You should be able to explain how the structures of plant tissues are related to their functions. The leaf is a plant organ. The structures of tissues in the leaf are related to their functions. Your knowledge should be limited to epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, xylem and phloem and guard cells surrounding stomata.

You should have done observation and drawing of a transverse section of leaf. You should be able to explain how the structure of root hair cells, xylem and phloem are adapted to their functions. You should be able to explain the effect of changing temperature, humidity, air flow air movement and light intensity on the rate of transpiration.

Know that the roots, stem and leaves form a plant organ system for transport of substances around the plant.

Root hair cells are adapted for the efficient uptake of water by osmosis and mineral ions by active transport. Xylem tissue transports water and mineral ions from the roots to the stems and leaves. It is composed of hollow tubes strengthened by lignin adapted for the transport of water in the transpiration stream. You should be able to describe the process of transpiration and translocation, including the structure and function of the stomata. Factors which affect the rate of transpiration are: Know that the role of stomata and guard cells are to control gas exchange and water loss.

Phloem tissue transports dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant for immediate use or storage. The movement of food through phloem tissue is called translocation.

Phloem is composed of tubes of elongated cells. Cell sap can move from one phloem cell to the next through pores in the end walls. You don't need to know the detailed structure of phloem tissue or the mechanism of transport. Measuring the rate of transpiration by the uptake of water. Investigating the distribution of stomata and guard cells. Process data from investigations involving stomata and transpiration rates to find arithmetic means, understand the principles of sampling and calculate surface areas and volumes.

You need to understand and use simple compound measures such as the rate of reaction. Be able to translate information between graph and numerical form, plot and draw appropriate graphs, selecting appropriate scales for axes and extract and interpret information from graphs, charts and tables.

Know that pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria that cause infectious diseases in animals and plants. They depend on their host to provide the conditions and nutrients that they need to grow and reproduce.

They frequently produce toxins that damage tissues and make us feel ill. This section will explore how we can avoid diseases by reducing contact with them, as well as how the body uses barriers against pathogens. Once inside the body our immune system is triggered which is usually strong enough to destroy the pathogen and prevent disease.

When at risk from unusual or dangerous diseases our body's natural system can be enhanced by the use of vaccination. Since the s a range of antibiotics have been developed which have proved successful against a number of lethal diseases caused by bacteria. Unfortunately many groups of bacteria have now become resistant to these antibiotics. The race is now on to develop a new set of antibiotics. You should be able to explain how diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi are spread in animals and plants.

Be able to explain how the spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented. The spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented by eg simple hygiene measures, destroying vectors, isolation of infected individuals and vaccination. Pathogens are microorganisms that cause infectious disease. Pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, protists or fungi. They may infect plants or animals and can be spread by direct contact, by water or by air. Pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria that cause infectious diseases in animals and plants.

This section explores how we can avoid diseases by reducing contact with them, as well as how the body uses barriers against pathogens. Bacteria and viruses may reproduce rapidly inside the body. Bacteria may produce poisons toxins that damage tissues and make us feel ill.

Viruses live and reproduce inside cells, causing cell damage. Know that measles is a viral disease showing symptoms of fever and a red skin rash. Measles is a serious illness that can be fatal if complications arise. For this reason most young children are vaccinated against measles. The measles virus is spread by inhalation of droplets from sneezes and coughs.

HIV initially causes a flu-like illness. HIV is spread by sexual contact or exchange of body fluids such as blood which occurs when drug users share needles. Tobacco mosaic virus TMV is a widespread plant pathogen affecting many species of plants including tomatoes. Know that salmonella food poisoning is spread by bacteria ingested in food, or on food prepared in unhygienic conditions.

In the UK, poultry are vaccinated against Salmonella to control the spread. Fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea are caused by the bacteria and the toxins they secrete.

Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease STD with symptoms of a thick yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis and pain on urinating.

It is caused by a bacterium and was easily treated with the antibiotic penicillin until many resistant strains appeared. Gonorrhoea is spread by sexual contact. The spread can be controlled by treatment with antibiotics or the use of a barrier method of contraception such as a condom.

Rose black spot is a fungal disease where purple or black spots develop on leaves, which often turn yellow and drop early. It affects the growth of the plant as photosynthesis is reduced. It is spread in the environment by water or wind. Know that the pathogens that cause malaria are protists. The malarial protist has a life cycle that includes the mosquito. Malaria causes recurrent episodes of fever and can be fatal. The spread of malaria is controlled by preventing the vectors, mosquitos, from breeding and by using mosquito nets to avoid being bitten.

You should be able to explain the nonspecific defence systems of the human body against pathogens. The human body defends itself against the entry of pathogens including: The skin is a barrier and produces antimicrobial secretions. The nose traps particles which may contain pathogens. The trachea and bronchi secrete mucus which traps pathogens and cilia waft the mucus to the back of the throat where it is swallowed.

The stomach produces acid which kills the majority of pathogens which enter via the mouth. You should be able to explain the role of the immune system in the defence against disease. If a pathogen enters the body the immune system tries to destroy the pathogen. White blood cells help to defend against pathogens by: You should be able to explain how vaccination will prevent illness in an individual, and how the spread of pathogens can be reduced by immunising a large proportion of the population.

Know that vaccination involves introducing small quantities of dead or inactive forms of a pathogen into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies. You do not need to know details of vaccination schedules and side effects associated with specific vaccines. If a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen, the spread of the pathogen is very much reduced. Be able to discuss the global use of vaccination in the prevention of disease.

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